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Gleichzeitig sollte sie zum Aufbau von entsprechenden Institutionen beitragen. Seine Stiftung betrug After elementary school, he became an apprentice of his uncle, an owner of a general and grocery store, for four years, and then worked as a shop assistant.

At the age of nineteen, he was already a townsman. In , he opened his own grocery and paint store. From his sixties until his death, he sat in the Brno City Council. Valentin Falkensteiner was a member of many associations and worked for the First Moravian Savings Bank. Falkensteiner made his mark in the history of the city of Brno as a generous patron who gave almost all his fortune to charity. Falkensteiner had no children, so he bequeathed a considerable sum to his nephew Valentin. Gerstbauer to support the establishment of his charitable foundation.

In his testament from , he also set up his own foundation to provide financial support to students, orphans and the poor. The foundation was supposed to support the construction of necessary institutions, as well. Its funds included securities, mortgage receivables, a cash deposit and money from the rents from several houses in Brno, which belonged to the foundation. His nephew Valentin Gerstbauer, a cloth merchant, continued in his charitable activities. His foundation fund included , guilders to which Gerstbauer added 50, guilders from his uncle Falkensteiner.

The foundation was later taken over by the Brno City Council, which decided to use its money to support primarily the bereaved of both the patrons and the children of Brno townsmen and residents. The city also built several houses to finance the foundation. Danach studierte er Germanistik in Wien und in Graz. The family later moved to Brno where Guido started to attend the German grammar school. Then he went to study German studies in Vienna and Graz. When the Czechoslovak Republic was established, he co-founded a German theatre company, became a theatre critic and published texts in many papers he also founded the theatre magazine Die Rampe.

Until , he worked as a theatre playwright and director, and authored many productions and plays. After the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, he retired and worked only as a teacher of German, criticizing the Nazi regime in his lessons — as his students later claimed. His testimony helped the young man survive World War II. The tombstone from his final resting place is now in the Museum of Literature in Moravia in the town of Rajhrad.

In addition to theatre criticism, he published texts in many Brno papers, and he wrote poetry, novels and novellas however, only a few of them have been published so far. Johann Paulus Herring Behind the villa, you can see the neo-Gothic tomb of the Herring family in its original position in the former city cemetery.

DE Es handelt sich um eine bayerische Familie, die am Ende des Sein Interesse galt mehreren Wirtschaftsgebieten, konkret ging es um Wollhandel, Bergbau und Bankwesen. Kleine Kreuz des St. Als Mitglied der K. Herrings Neffe und gleichzeitig Adoptivsohn Ernst Johann Seine Mutter setzte durch, dass er auch den Adelstitel erben soll.

Ernst Johann Herring war politisch aktiv. Ernst Johann beeinflusste auch die lokale Politik, indem er in den Jahren — Mitglied des Stadtrates war. Im Jahre entschied er sich, ein neues neugotisches Familiengrabmal. Leopold Masur. The Herring family came to Brno from Bavaria in the late 18th century. After the Nuremberg company founded its branch in Brno in , Herring became its director and moved to the Moravian metropolis for good.

Eleven years later, he laid the foundations of his own company. He was interested in many different disciplines, such as wool production, mining and banking. In , Herring managed to get secret plans for the construction of spinning machines from England. The machines were supposed to be manufactured in a new factory in Brno, later managed also by Herring. In , Herring founded a mining company in Rosice near Brno it was the greatest coal mining company in the Rosice-Oslavany coal district.

Herring was also a co-owner of the Moravian Credit Bank for almost twenty years. For his activities and work, Emperor Franz I lent him the Cross of the Imperial Austrian Order of Leopold, promoted him to the knighthood, and granted him the aristocracy citizenship of Bohemia and Moravia. Herring had numerous interests and took part in an immense number of activities.

He was a superior of the Brno protestant community and financially supported the church and its school. Johann Paulus Herring died in Brno in Hrob rodiny Herringovi. His mother pulled some strings, so he inherited the title of nobility, as well. Like his uncle Johann Paulus, Ernst Johann was very active and engaged in many industrial and other areas.

Ernst Johann Herring helped to develop the railway network in the Brno region the route Brno-Rosice , which significantly contributed to the industrialization of the city. He also enabled further development of Moravian banking, having co-founded several banks. He was interested in education, as well — for example, he initiated the establishment of the Orava Weaving and Trade School in Brno.

Ernst Johann Herring was an active politician. His participation in the escort of Austrian Foreign Minister at the diplomatic negotiations on ceasefire after the Austro-Prussian War of was considered an example of his Austrian patriotism and loyalty. Ernst Johann was also active in local politics as a member of the City Council in At that time, he initiated the establishment of the Brno gas company, and supported the beautification of the city and the care of orphans and the poor.

In , he decided to build a new family tomb in the neo-Gothic style designed by the Viennese architect Josef Fusse and made by the mason Franz Paster. Jelinka sk. Im ehemaligen Grab von A. Jelinek Gruppe 20, Gr. Jelinek, group No. Josef Jelinek ml. Anton Jelinek. Antons Vater Josef Jelinek d.

Josef Jelinek d. Landeshauses II. In den neunziger Jahren des He founded a family construction business where his three sons — the architect Anton , who studied the German Technical School in Brno; the builder Josef Jelinek, Jr. Josef Jelinek, Jr. Buildings constructed by the Jelineks can also be found outside of Brno. In the s, their company built a new state hospital and a district court with a prison in Olomouc.

Schulverein oder Turnverein. Schulverein and Turnverein. In , he was awarded the title of honorary citizen of the city of Brno. The Brno Technical Museum. Im Mai , vor der Trauung mit der Arbeiterin Franziska, geb. Ende der vierziger Jahre des Den englischen und deutschen Konkurrenten boten sie die Stirn durch ihre Produkte aus Schafwolle, die mit Baumwolle vermischt wurde, mit der sog. Vigogno-Ware, mit der sie insbesondere in Italien und im Orient Erfolg hatten. Already in , he founded a company in Cejl Street in Brno, and he gained the right to produce wool from the City Council.

Together with his business partner Friedrich Schmal, he took care of everything, from the purchase of raw wool to the sale of finished products. It was the first company to produce such items in Brno. The company produced all kinds of woollen goods, from printed yarn, fine worsted and carded yarn types, to felt and horse blankets. His company could boast of a developed social system. Gregor Johann Mendel. Als Ordensbruder standen ihm viele Pflichten zu. Zu dieser Zeit betrieb er seine Experimente nicht mehr, weil seine Augen nicht mehr gut waren.

Trotzdem blieb er aktiv und widmete sich seinen Interessen, insbesondere der Meteorologie und der Bienenzucht. He was a gifted boy from an early age. He was sent to study a grammar school in Opava, but due to lack of finance from his parents, he had to earn money by teaching his classmates. After graduation, he went to study at the Faculty of Arts in Olomouc. At the age of 21, he was recommended as a good candidate for the Augustinian order, whose abbey was one of the intellectual centres of Brno at that time since its members were engaged in science, education, journalism and politics.

Dresden, - Axis History Forum

Mendel was interested in natural science, and in his free time, he worked in the monastery garden, where he conducted experiments with the cross-breeding of plants. As a monk, however, he had a lot of obligations. In addition to his priestly duties in the hospital, which exhausted him he suffered from a weak nervous system since his youth , he also worked as a teacher.

He taught mathematics, Greek and Latin at grammar schools in Brno and Znojmo. Mendel liked teaching and he was also a popular educator, so he decided to sit for the exams in teaching competence in Vienna. The paradox is that the scientist did not pass the exams. However, this did not deter him from further studies at the university in Vienna in He studied mostly maths, physics and physiology of plants in the seminars led by Christian Doppler and Franz Unger.

For his observations, he chose the pea. He concentrated on a few select characters such as the colour, shape, etc. Mendel came. He also discovered that the first generation of pea hybrids has a similar character to one of the parents, and the characters from both the parents are not combined.

The descendants that resemble the other of the parents, appeared in the next generation of hybrids.

Thus, the monk proceeded in his research in a completely innovative way, and contributed to the development of scientific methodology. When Mendel presented his conclusions to the Natural History Society in , his procedures were too abstract and difficult to understand for his colleagues.

Schmidt, J a E

Yet he published his work as a book. In , Mendel was elected the abbot, which meant a lot of other social obligations for him. At that time, he no longer conducted experiments due to his poor sight. But he remained active, and he was still interested in his hobbies, particularly meteorological observation and bee-keeping. He was also the director of the Mortgage Bank. Mendel died of inflammation of the kidney in January , and he was buried in the Augustinian tomb at the Central Cemetery.

Ihre Firma spezialisierte sich vor allem auf industrielle Bauten. First, he was employed as an engineer at the Regional Engineering Office in Brno; later, he became the construction councillor. The company dealt primarily with industrial construction. It is one of the oldest dams in the Czech Republic, which was supposed to supply water to the planned Danube-Odra Canal. The dam was built in , and it is interesting in many ways. For example, it was one of greatest water constructions of the time, and its architects used a new method of calculating the dam stability.


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Bremsbahnen baute z. Rabas also helped with the transportation of mined materials from quarries by building the so-called braking rails e. Adolf Ripka. Dadurch konnten ihre Produkte im Vergleich zu den Konkurrenten billiger sein. The Ripka family started manufacturing dyes in Unlike others, they produced them mechanically from coloured wood, not chemically. Thus, their products were cheaper compared to the competition.

Karel Ripka , was not only a dyer, but also a forwarder, like his father. For his merits, he was appointed Imperial Councillor in , and he became a townsman of Brno three years later. He was also as a member of the Moravian Landtag for 12 years. Both brothers were active tourists. In addition to the family tomb made by Josef Tomola, there are two architectural monuments left by the family in Brno. The building was part of the first phase of the Brno ring road. Sie wuchs in St. Petersburg auf, wo ihr Vater, der aus Estland stammte, als Gartenarchitekt wirkte.

Sie schrieb mehrere Hundert Gedichte; die meisten wurden bis heute nicht herausgegeben. Sie beschlossen deshalb Deutschland zu verlassen. Hier nahmen sie schnell Kontakte zu anderen deutschen Antifaschisten auf. Jahrhunderts dar. She spent her childhood in St. Petersburg, where her father, originally from Estonia, worked as a garden architect. After her parents divorced, she returned with her German mother to Germany.

She studied the theatre school in Munich. In , she married the German journalist and writer Wil Schaber. She wrote hundreds of poems, many of which have not been published yet. Their first trip led to Estonia, and then they wanted to flee to Vienna. The Czechoslovak border guard advised the Schabers to leave for Brno, where a large German minority lived.

In Brno, they quickly established contact with other German anti-fascists. Together with other German expats, they established the Press Service, which was supposed to inform the German press outside of the Nazi Germany. They were subscribed to by newspapers in Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Romania or Palestine. In , Else Schaber published a collection of poems Anbruch des Tages at the Monat publishing house. After four years of illness, Else Schaber died in a Brno hospice on 19 July Her grave is one of the few monuments to the German expats of the s in Brno.

Phillip Schoeller byl mj. Gustav Schoeller. In London war Phillip Schoeller sogar einer der Preisrichter. Im April wurden Phillip und sein. EN The Schoeller family was among the major industrialists and wholesalers in the wool, sugar and steel industry in Brno. Phillip Wilhelm — and his Gustav Adolf — were the most important figures in the history of the company. Phillip became its manager in ; a year later, he founded a factory producing woollen goods and felt with his brother Adolf. The arrival of the Schoellers to Brno is known as the beginning of a new era of the wool industry because they introduced modern technology in their factories.

The quality of their products was awarded at the world exhibitions in London and Paris , in particular for the careful management of the production process — from the selection of raw materials to the final production. In London, Phillip Schoeller was even one of the.

In , Gustav Schoeller co-founded a joint-stock company with other Brno and Vienna manufacturers to operate a spinning mill producing worsted yarn in Brno. The Schoeller family was also active in the Brno public and cultural life. Some historians even call him the grey eminence of the Brno public life. The fact that the Schoellers operated the first U.

Dne Rudolf von Singule. The Internet Encyclopaedia of the Brno History. Leutnant Rudolf von Singule wurde am 8. Danach diente er auf mehreren Schiffen und Torpedobooten. Bereits am 9. Am Bis zum Kriegsende versenkte er weitere 15 Schiffe. Es wurde mit ihm als geeigneter Kommandant eines Langstrecken-U-Bootes gerechnet. In der tschechoslowakischen Armee wurde er Reserveoffizier der technischen Truppen. Seine Ehefrau Dora konnte er allerdings nicht retten. Lieutenant Rudolf von Singule was born in Pula on 8 April His military career seemed to be predetermined by the fact that his father was a Navy commissioner although he was from Brno.

In , he graduated from the Naval Academy in Rijeka, and then he soldiered on ships and torpedoes. In , he underwent training for the newly assigned U-4 submarine, and started soldiering on submarines which made him famous. He became the U-4 commander on 9 April His first achievements came soon. On 9 June , his submarine severely damaged the British cruiser Dublin. Shortly afterwards, he was honoured for his greatest wartime success.

On 18 July , he managed to sink the Italian cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi. By the end of World War I, he sank other 15 ships. In , he was transferred to the submarine base in Pula as an instructor. He was to become the commander of an ocean submarine. However, the fate had something else for him in store: the return to the city of Brno and clerical work in a pension insurance company. Singule remained in the army at least partially as a reserve engineer officer of the Czechoslovak army.

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The Nazi occupation changed his plans again. To save his Jewish wife and children, he joined the German Navy, where he served as Lieutenant Captain and commander of the UD-4 school submarine in Kiel, and he served in Italy in However, he did not manage to protect his wife Dora. The persecution by the German authorities forced her to commit suicide in December The tragic fate of Rudolf von Singule, the successful submarine commander, ended on 2 May in Brno.

When he was defending his second wife and daughters from the raging Soviet soldiers, one of them shot him. CS Heinrich Storek se narodil 5. Two years ago I procured from a private east German source what purported to be extracts from the Police President's report, quoting the final death-roll as "a quarter of a million"; the other statistics it contained were accurate, but it is now obvious that the death-roll statistic was falsified, probably in The east German authorities who had originally declined to provide me with the documents have now supplied to me a copy of the page "final report" written by the area police chief about one month after the Dresden raids, and there is no doubt as to this document's authenticity.

In short, the report shows that the Dresden casualties were on much the same scale as in the heaviest Hamburg raids in His figures are very much lower than those I quoted. The crucial passage reads: "Casualties: by 10th March, , 18, dead, 2, seriously injured, and 13, slightly injured had been registered, with , homeless and permanently evacuated. Of the dead recovered by then, 6, had been cremated in one of the city squares. A total of 35, people were listed as "missing". The general authenticity of the report is established beyond doubt, because within a very few days of receiving the first, a second wartime German report was supplied to me, this time from a western source.

The second report, a Berlin police summary of "Air Raids on Reich Territory", dated March 22, , was found, quite by chance, misfiled among the 25, Reich Finance Ministry files currently being explored at the west German Federal Archives. It was forwarded to me by one of their archivists, Doctor Boberach.

I have no interest in promoting or perpetuating false legends, and I feel it is important that in this respect the record should be set straight. Besondere Vorkommnisse:] 1. Die Asched. Vorstehender Bericht wird nach Abstimmung der Unterlagen mit der Kreisleitung d. NSDAP erstattet. This figure results from recent investigations of the Dresden city archive and is based on documents, assessed for the first time, of the departments of the city of Dresden which had been in charge of recovery and burial of the victims at the time.


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The city administration continued to function even after the attack, the recovery and burial of the dead was by no means carried out in a chaotic manner, there was accurate registration. The number mentioned includes 6, dead who were burned on the Altmarkt in order to prevent the spread of diseases.

Former rescue workers consider it a myth that dead should have been burnt to ashes in cellars with flame throwers. The figure also includes 1, dead bodies which were found in under the ruins during construction works in Dresden. These data coincide with other official documents which in March of had contained detailed listings of the dead, but thereafter been crudely manipulated and thus lead to confusion after the war - a forger had added a naught to all the figures.

When discussing the total balance of the horror, the question is often put how many refugees were in the city at the time of the attack. It is widely maintained that these people, unknown in Dresden, died in their tens of thousands in the firestorm. Yet no eyewitness confirms that caravans of refugees crossed Dresden in the middle of February on horse carriages. Neither could massive lodgings in Dresden households be established.

Only such a measure would have made it possible to accommodate hundreds of thousands of externals in a city that still had about , inhabitants. Great numbers of refugees could be seen, however, in the vicinity of the railway stations; many were also lodged in restaurants, hotels, schools and other centers of reception. Serious estimates consider that, including the about 30, prisoners of war and forced laborers, there were about , externals inside the city; other sources mention , people from abroad in the city itself and in the surrounding area.

Some controversies about the number of victims in the past took the form of macabre technical considerations. It was considered possible, for instance, that many people were burned in the firestorm into heaps of ash so small that they could not be found. Fire department experts and forensic medics have in the meantime responded to this question very clearly — hardly a human body burns completely to ashes.

This means that six digit numbers of victims that have been talked about for decades must be seen as pure speculations. For beginning on the night of February 13th, , occurred the destruction of Dresden. For all practical purposes Germany was already defeated. Italy, and Germany's other European allies, had fallen by the wayside.

The Red Army was rushing to occupy vast areas of what had been Germany in the East, while the allies of the Soviets, the British and Americans, were bombing what was left of Germany's defenses and food and transportation infrastructure into nonexistence. And what was Dresden? Most of you have probably heard of Dresden China, and that delicately executed and meticulously detailed porcelain is really a perfect symbol for that city. For centuries Dresden had been a center of art and culture, and refined leisure and recreation. She was a city of art museums and theatres, circuses and sports stadia, a town of ancient half-timbered buildings looking for all the world like those of medieval England, with venerable churches and centuries-old cathedrals gracing her skyline.

She was a city of artists and craftsmen, of actors and dancers, of tourists and the merchants and hotels that served them.

Above all, what Dresden was, was defined during the war by what she was not. She had no significant military or industrial installations. Because of this, Dresden had become, above all other things that she was, a city of children, of women, of refugees, and of the injured and maimed who were recovering from their wounds in her many hospitals. These women and children, these wounded soldiers, these infirm and elderly people, these refugees fleeing from the brutal onslaught of the Communist armies to the East, had come to Dresden because it was commonly believed at the time that Dresden would not be attacked.

Its lack of strategic or military or industrial significance, and the well-known presence of hundreds of thousands of innocent civilian refugees and even Allied prisoners of war, seemed to guarantee safety to the city. Surely, it was thought, not even a the most powerful and determined enemy would be so depraved and sadistic, and so wasteful of that enemy's own resources, to attack such a city.

But the people of Dresden, who were happily attending the cinema or eating dinner at home or watching the show-horses in the circus on that fateful night were wrong, wrong, wrong. And their leaders were also wrong, for the city was virtually open and undefended and only minimal civil defense preparations had been made.

Dresden's population had almost doubled in the months before the attack, mainly as a result of the influx of refugees from the Eastern Front, most of them women and young children. According to British historian David Irving, the briefings given to the British bomber squadrons before the attack on Dresden were curiously different. In one, the soldiers were told that their target was the railway center of Dresden. In another, they were told that the target was a poison-gas factory. In yet another, they were told that the target was a marshalling-grounds for troops in the city.

Another was told that the target was a major arsenal. These were all lies. The only marshalling-grounds for what few troops were in the area were located well outside the city. The arsenal had burned down in There were factories for toothpaste and baby-powder in Dresden, but none for poison gas.

There were, in fact, no fewer than eighteen railway stations in Dresden, but only one was hit by the bombing, and that was barely touched and in fact was operating again just three days later. According to copious documentation unearthed by David Irving from the archives of the American and British governments, the point of the attack was in fact to inflict the maximum loss of life on the civilian population and particularly to kill as many refugees as possible who were fleeing from the Red Army. In achieving these goals it was highly successful.

It was thus planned and executed by those at the very highest levels of the British and American governments, who to attain their purposes even lied to their own soldiers and citizens, who to this day have never been told the full story by their leaders. How was this devastating effect accomplished?

The attacking force consisted of about 2, bombers with additional support craft, which dropped over 3, high explosive and , incendiary bombs more commonly known as firebombs on the center of the city. Incendiary bombs are not known for their efficiency per pound in destroying heavy equipment such as military hardware or railroad tracks, but are extremely effective in producing maximum loss of human life.

The loads carried by the bombers were over 75 per cent incendiaries. In fact, the goal of the first wave of the attack was, according to British air commander Sir Arthur Bomber Harris, to set the city well on fire. That he did. The lack of any effective anti-aircraft defenses allowed the bombers to drop to very low altitudes and thus a relatively high degree of precision and visual identification of targets was achieved.

Despite the fact that they could clearly see that the marked target area contained hospitals and sports stadia and residential areas of center city Dresden, the bombers nevertheless obeyed orders and rained down a fiery death upon the unlucky inhabitants of that city on a scale which had never before been seen on planet Earth. Hundreds of thousands of innocents were literally consumed by fire, an actual holocaust by the true definition of the word: complete consumption by fire.

Dresden after its holocaust The incendiaries started thousands of fires and, aided by a stiff wind and the early-on destruction of the telephone exchanges that might have summoned firefighters from nearby towns, these fires soon coalesced into one unimaginably huge firestorm. Now such firestorms are not natural phenomena, and are seldom created by man, so few people have any idea of their nature. Basically, what happened was this: The intense heat caused by the huge column of smoke and flame, miles high and thousands of acres in area, created a terrific updraft of air in the center of the column.

This created a very low pressure at the base of the column, and surrounding fresh air rushed inward at speeds estimated to be thirty times that of an ordinary tornado. An ordinary tornado wind-force is a result of temperature differences of perhaps 20 to 30 degrees centigrade. In this firestorm the temperature differences were on the order of to 1, degrees centigrade.

This inward-rushing air further fed the flames, creating a literal tornado of fire, with winds in the surrounding area of many hundreds of miles per hour--sweeping men, women, children, animals, vehicles and uprooted trees pell-mell into the glowing inferno. But this was only the first stage of the plan. Exactly on schedule, three hours after the first attack, a second massive armada of British bombers arrived, again loaded with high explosive and massive quantities of incendiary bombs. The residents of Dresden, their power systems destroyed by the first raid, had no warning of the second.

Again the British bombers attacked the center city of Dresden, this time dividing their targets--one half of the bombs were to be dropped into the center of the conflagration, to keep it going, the other half around the edges of the firestorm. No pretense whatever was made of selecting military targets. The timing of the second armada was such as to ensure that a large quantity of the surviving civilians would have emerged from their shelters by that time, which was the case, and also in hopes that rescue and firefighting crews would have arrived from surrounding cities, which also proved to be true.

The firefighters and medics thus incinerated hadn't needed the telephone exchange to know that they were needed--the firestorm was visible from a distance of miles. It is reported that body parts, pieces of clothing, tree branches, huge quantities of ashes, and miscellaneous debris from the firestorm fell for days on the surrounding countryside as far away as eighteen miles. After the attack finally subsided, rescue workers found nothing but liquefied remains of the inhabitants of some shelters, where even the metal kitchen utensils had melted from the intense heat. The next day, Ash Wednesday and Valentine's Day, , medical and other emergency personnel from all over central Germany had converged on Dresden.

Little did they suspect that yet a third wave of bombers was on its way, this time American. This attack had been carefully coordinated with the previous raids. Four hundred fifty Flying Fortresses and a support contingent of fighters arrived to finish the job at noon. I quote from David Irving's The Destruction of Dresden: "Just a few hours before Dresden had been a fairy-tale city of spires and cobbled streets The ferocity of the US raid of 14th February had finally brought the people to their knees British prisoners who had been released from their burning camps were among the first to suffer the discomfort of machine-gunning attacks In Dresden, no fewer than , innocent victims died, with some estimates as high as , More died in Dresden than died in the well-known attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

More destruction befell Dresden in one day than was inflicted on the whole of Britain during the entire war. And yet you haven't been told. The city had no military targets to speak of, and it was known that it was packed with civilian refugees from the east. Here is an eye-witness account by Lothar shown here with his sister , just nine years old, who survived. It was February. I lived with my mother and sisters 13, 5 and 5 months old twins in Dresden and was looking forward to celebrating my 10th birthday February l6th. My father, a carpenter, had been a soldier since and we got his last letter in August My mother was very sad to receive her letters back with the note: "Not to be found.

I remember celebrating Shrove Tuesday February 13th together with other children, The activities of the war in the east came nearer and nearer. About PM the alarm was given. We children knew that sound and got up and dressed quickly, to hurry downstairs into our cellar which we used as an air raid shelter. My older sister and I carried my baby twin sisters, my mother carried a little suitcase and the bottles with milk for our babies. On the radio we heard with great horror the news: "Attention, a great air raid will corne over our town! Some minutes later we heard a horrible noise — the bombers.

There were nonstop explosions. Our cellar was filled with fire and smoke and was damaged, the lights went out and wounded people shouted dreadfully. In great fear we struggled to leave this cellar. My mother and my older sister carried the big basket in which the twins were lain. With one hand I grasped my younger sister and with the other I grasped the coat of my mother. We did not recognize our street any more.

Fire, only fire wherever we looked. Our 4th floor did not exist anymore. The broken remains of our house were burning. On the streets there were burning vehicles and carts with refugees, people, horses, all of them screaming and shouting in fear of death. I saw hurt women, children, old people searching a way through ruins and flames. We fled into another cellar overcrowded with injured and distraught men women and children shouting, crying and praying.

No light except some electric torches. And then suddenly the second raid began. This shelter was hit too, and so we fled through cellar after cellar. Many, so many, desperate people came in from the streets. Explosion after explosion. It was beyond belief, worse than the blackest nightmare. So many people were horribly burnt and injured.

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Dead and dying people were trampled upon, luggage was left or snatched up out of our hands by rescuers. The basket with our twins covered with wet cloths was snatched up out of my mothers hands and we were pushed upstairs by the people behind us. We saw the burning street, the falling ruins and the terrible firestorm. My mother covered us with wet blankets and coats she found in a water tub.

We saw terrible things: cremated adults shrunk to the size of small children, pieces of arms and legs, dead people, whole families burnt to death, burning people ran to and fro, burnt coaches filled with civilian refugees, dead rescuers and soldiers, many were calling and looking for their children and families, and fire everywhere, everywhere fire, and all the time the hot wind of the firestorm threw people back into the burning houses they were trying to escape from. I cannot forget these terrible details. I can never forget them.

Now rny rnother possessed only a little bag with our identitiy papers. The basket with the twins had disappeared and then suddenly my older sister vanished too. Although my rnother looked for her immediately it was in vain. The last hours af this night we found shelter in the cellar of a hospital nearby surrounded by crying and dying people. In the next morning we looked for our sister and the twins but without success. The house where we lived was only a burning ruin. The house where our twins were left we could not go in. Soldiers said everyone was burnt to death and we never saw my two baby sisters again.

Totally exhausted, with burnt hair and badly burnt and wounded by the fire we walked to the Loschwitz bridge where we found good people who allowed us to wash, to eat and to sleep. But only a short time because suddenly the second air raid began February14th and this house too was bombed and my mothers last identity papers burnt. Completely exhausted we hurried over the bridge river Elbe with many other homeless survivors and found another family ready to help us, because somehow their home survived this horror. In all this tragedy I had completely forgotten my l0th birthday.

But the next day rny mother surprised rne with a piece af sausage she begged from the "Red Cross". This was my birthday present. In the next days and weeks we looked for my older Sister but in vain. We wrote our present adress an the last walls of our demaged house. In the middle of March we were evacuated to a little village near Oschatz and on March 3lst, we got a letter from my sister. She was alive! In that disastrous night she lost us and with other lost children she was taken to a nearby village. Later she found our address on the wall of our house and at the beginning of April my rnother brought her to our new home.

You can be sure that the horrible experiences of this night in Dresden led to confused dreams, sleepless nights and disturbed our souls, me and the rest of my farnily. Years later I intensively thought the matter over, the causes, the political contexts of this night.

This became very important for my whole life and my further decisions. In Wirklichkeit ist er eine Art Kabarettist, dessen einzige Programmnummer darin besteht, einen Historiker zu simulieren. Aber auch aus der eigenen Zunft sind vermehrt kritische Stimmen zu vernehmen, und zwar ziemlich kritische. Arnulf Bahring z. Sicher eine Zeit, die uns mehr abverlangt als die Jahrzehnte davor. Er kann es nicht fassen, dass jemand solche Unwahrheiten verbreitet. Diese Diffamierungen seien unter allem Niveau.

Was war geschehen? Am Das Seniorenstudium der Akademie leite der Marinerichter a. Hans Filbinger. Filbinger scheint das Verbindungsglied zum Studienzentrum Weikersheim zu sein, dem think tank der extremen Rechten in Deutschland. Er ist Mitarbeiter der Gustav Siewerth Akademie. Und es gebe keine Verbindungen zum Opus Dei. Nur ein Professor habe mal so eine Vorlesung gehalten. Welcher Professor? Die Verbindungen sind nicht von der Hand zu weisen. Er ist auch Autor des Christiana Verlages. Aber das nur deshalb, weil die Nazis eigentlich Linke gewesen seien. Und zu ihrem Geburtstag wird Alma von Stockhausen geehrt.

Wer solche Historiker hat, hat keine Probleme mehr mit der Vergangenheit. Soeben kam aus Knopps Ressort ein neuer History-Hammer. Die ganze Nation fasziniert er mit seinen Fernsehdokumentationen. Der Geschichtsprofessor will als Journalist bewusst ein Massenpublikum erreichen. Warum machen Sie das?

Geschichte ist etwas, was uns alle angeht, vor allem in Deutschland. Jahrhunderts, die Nazizeit, der 2. Und ich versuche, die Frage mit filmischen Mitteln zu beantworten. Wie war es eigentlich? Ist es auch ein politisches Anliegen? Ich denke, ja. Das hat aber doch in den letzten Jahrhunderten eigentlich schon deutlich nachgelassen. Aber auch diese potentielle Auseinandersetzung ist ja nicht eine Auseinandersetzung zwischen Religionen.

Amongst his aims was to combat the many myths and legends which had come to surround the attacks. One such myth was the strafing of civilians and refugees by Allied fighters during the attack, an act most people today would condemn as a particularly despicable or even as a criminal act of war. Most of the pilots appear from eye-witness accounts to have decided that the safest attacking runs could be made along the Elbe river banks.

Others attacked transport on the roads leading out of the city, crowded with columns of people. Elsewhere in the same edition of his book the Corgi paperback, published in Irving states as a matter of proven historical fact that: it was the Mustang fighters, which suddenly appeared low over the streets, firing on everything that moved, and machine gunning the columns of lorries heading for the city. One section of the Mustangs concentrated on the river banks, where masses of bombed out people had gathered. Another section took on the targets in the Grosser Garten area.